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The well exposed Middle Pleistocene successions from northern Germany comprise glacilacustrine ice-contact subaqueous fan and glacial lake-outburst flood deposits.
The studied successions give new insights into the depositional architecture of bedforms related to supercritical flows and may serve as an analogue for other high-energy depositional environments such as fluvial settings, coarse-grained deltas or turbidite systems.
These bedforms are commonly laterally and vertically truncated and alternate with deposits of chutes-and-pools and antidunes.
The subaqueous fan successions are dominated by laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms, which are interpreted as deposits of aggrading stationary antidunes, which require quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation.
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The absence of planar-parallel stratification in all studied successions suggests that the formation of these bedforms is suppressed in flows characterised by hydraulic jumps under highly aggradational conditions.
The large-scale lateral and vertical successions of bedforms are interpreted as representing the temporal and spatial evolution of the initial supercritical flows, which was strongly affected by the occurrence of hydraulic jumps.
The preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows and hydraulic jumps is commonly considered to be rare in the geologic record, although these bedforms are known from a variety of depositional environments.
This field-based study presents a detailed analysis of the sedimentary facies and stacking pattern of deposits of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools, antidunes and humpback dunes from three-dimensional outcrops.
Regionally deglaciating climate coupled with sediment loading of historically stable single-thread rivers that drain retreating glaciers on the flanks of Mount Rainier have driven extreme fluvial network evolution on subdecadal timescales.